The Future Of The Fleets

2018-10-15T16:14:58+00:00 October 15, 2018|

(Credit: Chief Petty Officer David Mosley / U.S. Coast Guard) From: Ocean News Weekly/ By: Ocean Leadership Staff  What It Was The Senate Commerce, Science, and Transportation Subcommittee on Oceans, Atmosphere, Fisheries, and Coast Guard held a hearing titled: “The Future of the Fleets: Coast Guard and NOAA Ship Recapitalization” Why It [...]

Member Highlight: Ice Cores Show Greenland’s Melting Is Unprecedented In At Least Four Centuries

2018-04-02T11:35:51+00:00 March 30, 2018|

(Credit: Forrest McCarthy) Scientists who crossed western Greenland with a fleet of snowmobiles, pulling up long cylinders of ice at camps a little more than a mile above sea level, have found evidence that the vast sheet of ice is melting faster than at any time in the past 450 years at least — and possibly much longer than that. [...]

Unusual Weather Accelerates Arctic Sea Ice Loss

2018-01-18T17:56:12+00:00 January 18, 2018|

(Credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center) New research suggests weather anomalies are to blame for intense periods of accelerating Arctic sea ice loss. (From UPI/ By Brooks Hays) -- While research has confirmed links between global warming, rising Arctic temperatures and ongoing sea ice loss, variability remains. A pair of new studies conducted [...]

Erosion May Transform The Arctic Food Chain

2018-01-05T10:59:47+00:00 January 5, 2018|

As climate change continues to grip the Arctic—causing the oceans to rise, permafrost to thaw and sea ice to melt—scientists believe they've discovered an unexpected consequence of the shifting landscape. Changes along the coastline are altering the composition of the Arctic Ocean, in ways that could fundamentally transform the local food chain. (From Scientific [...]

Watchdog: Pentagon Taking Few Steps To Prepare Overseas Bases For Climate Change

2017-12-15T13:16:38+00:00 December 15, 2017|

The Pentagon has taken few steps to prepare its overseas installations for climate change, a government watchdog said Wednesday. (From The Hill/ By Rebecca Kheel) -- “While the military services have begun to integrate climate change adaptation into installations’ plans and project designs, this integration has been limited,” the Government Accountability Office (GAO) said in a report [...]

Arctic Report Card: Permafrost Thawing At A Faster Pace

2017-12-13T13:41:31+00:00 December 13, 2017|

Permafrost in the Arctic is thawing at a faster clip, according to a new report released Tuesday. Water is also warming and sea ice is melting at the fastest pace in 1,500 years at the top of the world. (From ABC News/ By Seth Borenstein) -- The annual report released Tuesday by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric [...]

Extreme Fieldwork, Climate Modeling Yields New Insight Into Predicting Greenland’s Melt

2017-12-12T12:37:33+00:00 December 12, 2017|

Greenland (Credit: Matthew Cooper) A new UCLA-led study reinforces the importance of collaboration in assessing the effects of climate change. The research, published Dec. 5 in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, offers new insights about previously unknown factors affecting Greenland's melting ice sheet, and it could ultimately help scientists [...]

Future Arctic Sea Ice Loss Could Dry Out California

2017-12-07T12:24:48+00:00 December 7, 2017|

(Credit: Graphic by Kathy Seibert/LLNL) Arctic sea ice loss of the magnitude expected in the next few decades could impact California's rainfall and exacerbate future droughts, according to new research led by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) scientists. (From Science Daily)-- The dramatic loss of Arctic sea ice cover observed over the satellite [...]

A Less Frozen Frontier

2018-08-06T16:20:38+00:00 December 4, 2017|

Northwest Passage (Credit: NASA) What It Was A coalition of geoscience organizations and Representative Don Young (AK-At-large) hosted a briefing in the Geosciences and the U.S. Economy Series titled, “Geosciences in the Artic: Permafrost, Energy, and Trade Routes in the Last Frontier.” Why It Matters The United States is an Arctic nation [...]

Tax Reform: Graduate Student Tuition And ANWR Drilling

2018-02-02T14:28:47+00:00 November 20, 2017|

(Click to enlarge) Map of Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). (Credit: USGS) What It Was Both chambers worked on tax reform bills, which are advancing through the budget reconciliation process. The House’s bill, Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (H.R. 1), passed the chamber along a largely party-line vote (227-205) and includes a [...]

Working Together On Water

2017-11-30T15:27:56+00:00 November 6, 2017|

The House Natural Resources Subcommittee on Water, Power, and Oceans held a hearing on three water bills, including the Hydrographic Services Improvement Amendments Act (H.R. 221) and Keep America’s Waterfronts Working Act (H.R. 1176). The use of our ocean is increasing, and this hearing focused on two pieces of legislation that would address the backlog of coastal surveys (which could help prevent oil spills, ship collisions, and habitat destruction) and ensure working waterfronts persist through coastal development.

Avoiding Clashes Between Ocean Researchers And Indigenous Communities

2017-10-17T15:26:48+00:00 October 17, 2017|

The University of Alaska has produced a procedure for what scientists on research vessels should do to avoid disrupting Indigenous communities’ traditional hunts. The university’s Brenda Konar hopes that other vessels will adopt codes of conduct. The Arctic Ocean is rapidly changing, and researchers are rushing to understand those changes. That means more research expeditions are coming into more frequent contact with Indigenous communities and the marine animals they depend on. To avoid those conflicts, a recent paper by researchers at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks lays out a “Community and Environmental Compliance Standard Operating Procedure,” or CECSOP.

Offshore Drilling: At What Cost

2017-11-30T15:50:24+00:00 October 16, 2017|

House Natural Resources Subcommittee on Energy and Mineral Resources held a hearing on a discussion draft of the Accessing Strategic Resources Offshore Act (ASTRO Act) (draft bill). Why It Matters - Drilling for oil in the ocean has an impact on our economy and environment. Outer continental shelf (OCS) drilling has been banned in certain areas for several reasons, including disruption to tourism, threats to ecosystems and species, noise pollution, and risk of oil spills. Determining where OCS lease sales can occur involves rigorous assessment. This bill would open all areas of the ocean to drilling, eliminate the president’s ability to designate marine national monuments, and give OCS lease sales authority to the secretary of interior instead of relying solely on the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management’s (BOEM) five-year plan.

Member Highlight: Research In The Arctic: Discovering Changes In The Ecosystem

2017-10-16T11:47:32+00:00 October 16, 2017|

Arctic research has been ongoing for several decades, yet there is still a clear need for additional studies to better understand the processes driving the Arctic marine ecosystem as a whole—even more so as Arctic sea ice continues to retreat at an increasing rate. Changes in sea ice timing, presence, extent, or thickness will have profound influences on coastal communities, marine mammals, seabirds, fishes, plankton, and oceanography.

Member Highlight: Research In The Arctic: Discovering Changes In The Ecosystem

2018-01-02T13:51:54+00:00 October 16, 2017|

Arctic research has been ongoing for several decades, yet there is still a clear need for additional studies to better understand the processes driving the Arctic marine ecosystem as a whole—even more so as Arctic sea ice continues to retreat at an increasing rate. Changes in sea ice timing, presence, extent, or thickness will have profound influences on coastal communities, marine mammals, seabirds, fishes, plankton, and oceanography.

On Thin Ice

2017-11-30T15:51:13+00:00 October 10, 2017|

(Click to enlarge) (Credit: Kevin J. Neff/U.S. Coast Guard ) What It Was The Senate Arctic Caucus, Senate Oceans Caucus, and Congressional Arctic Working Group, in conjunction with the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (U.S. Helsinki Commission), hosted a briefing, “A New Ocean In The North: Perils And Possibilities.” Why It [...]

Zooplankton Resilient To Long-Term Warming

2017-09-07T10:36:56+00:00 September 7, 2017|

Temperature plays an important role in the distribution of ocean plankton communities and has the potential to cause major distribution shifts, as recently observed in the Arctic. A new study from scientists at British Antarctic Survey shows that zooplankton, tiny animals that drift in the sea making up the base of the food web, which live in the Southern Ocean have been resilient to warming ocean temperatures.

Look Out, Europe: Melting Arctic Ice Could Weaken The Gulf Stream, Researchers Say

2017-08-08T15:42:29+00:00 August 8, 2017|

The loss of Arctic sea ice as a result of global warming could have dramatic and potentially catastrophic effects on the climate of much of the northern hemisphere, according to a new report. Scientists at Yale University and the University of Southampton recently demonstrated that the ongoing loss of sea ice is actively changing one of Earth’s main systems for transporting water — the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). To put it simply, AMOC circulates cold, dense water from the north Atlantic southward and warm, salty water from the tropical Atlantic northward. This system, which includes the Gulf Stream, plays a major role in maintaining the global climate, and its deterioration could have a dramatic impact.

Scientists Discover Fault Linked To Unusually High Tsunami Risk In Alaska

2017-08-03T11:49:39+00:00 August 3, 2017|

A team of scientists found something hidden off the coast of Alaska that suggests a significant risk for future tsunamis in the area. The team made the discovery as they were conducting seismic surveys off the Alaskan coast to better understand the regional plate tectonics and subduction. The research, published in Nature Geoscience, provides evidence for an increased tsunami risk in an area previously thought to be low risk for tsunamis. The feature was found by a research team at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University. It is similar to the feature that produced the devastating Tohoku tsunami in 2011 off Japan, which killed approximately 20,000 people and caused three nuclear reactors to melt down.

Unexpected Life Found At The Bottom Of High Arctic Lakes

2017-08-02T13:17:43+00:00 August 2, 2017|

IN THE SHALLOW, frigid waters of Nunavut’s Ward Hunt Lake, something mysterious lingers at the lake floor. It’s fuzzy, it’s bright orange – and it’s alive. For more than 50 years, scientists from around the world have traveled to Ward Hunt Lake, the northernmost lake in the Canadian Arctic, to study the region or launch expeditions to the North Pole. Until recently, the prevailing notion was that come wintertime, when night casts a long shadow over the island, the waters would freeze up, and the microbial creatures of the deep that inhabit the lake bottom would all but disappear. But surprisingly, a recent study by researchers at Université Laval, Quebec City found just the opposite.

Forget That Big Iceberg–A Smaller One In The Arctic Is More Troubling

2017-08-02T09:14:09+00:00 August 2, 2017|

The world saw headlines about one of the largest icebergs ever calved a few weeks ago. But a smaller one on the other end of the globe might have bigger consequences. The chunk of ice, which broke free in the Arctic last week, is more worrisome to climate scientists who are watching one of Earth's largest glaciers shed pieces in a way that stands to raise sea levels.

America Losing To Russia 40-3 In Arctic Icebreaker Race

2017-07-31T15:06:29+00:00 July 31, 2017|

Few ships have a strong enough hull, the appropriate shape, or enough power to push through multiple meters of solid sea ice. Icebreakers are becoming increasingly necessary ships for the Coast Guard as the climate warms and the Arctic thaws, opening the once-inaccessible area to traffic and foreign nations like Russia and China. The House Subcommittee on Coast Guard and Maritime Transportation held a hearing to discuss these much-needed vessels (vital for conducting Artic research) with the Coast Guard.

Member Highlight: A New Model Yields Insights Into Glaciers’ Retreats And Advances

2018-01-02T13:54:31+00:00 July 31, 2017|

A University of Alaska Fairbanks study looking at the physics of tidewater glaciers has yielded new insights into what drives their retreat-and-advance cycles and the role that climate plays in these cycles. Lead author and UAF geophysics doctoral student Douglas Brinkerhoff said the study in Nature Communications reveals that shifting sediments drive the cycles among tidewater glaciers in temperate climates such as southern Alaska.

Why Scientists Are Racing To Uncover The Greenland Shark’s Secrets

2017-07-26T10:01:06+00:00 July 26, 2017|

Brace yourself. To human senses, the gelid waters of the Arctic and North Atlantic oceans are beyond chilling. Because sea water is salty, the waters can actually reach temperatures below what we think of as freezing (as low as 28.8 degrees Fahrenheit instead of the usual 32) and remain liquid. Without protective gear, the human body can withstand maybe 15 minutes of these temperatures before succumbing to unconsciousness; 45 minutes before death.

Polar Bears And People: Cataloging Conflict

2017-07-20T16:26:21+00:00 July 20, 2017|

ON WILLIAM BARENTS’S second Arctic expedition in 1595, the Dutch navigator’s crew had a deadly encounter. While searching for diamonds on an islet near Russia’s Vaygach Island three months into the journey, two of his sailors were resting in a wind-protected depression when “a great leane beare came sodainly stealing out, and caught one of them fast by the necke.” The bear killed and devoured both men, despite the crew’s attempt to drive the animal away. The incident, recounted in Dutch officer Gerrit de Veer’s diary, became the first account of a polar bear attacking humans in recorded history.

Coast Guard Makes Dire Warning About Drilling In The Arctic

2017-07-19T14:00:29+00:00 July 19, 2017|

(Click to enlarge) WHOI and the University of Delaware  Ocean Drilling Program. (Courtesy of the Ocean Drilling Program) For months now America's climate denying president, Donald Trump, has been maneuvering to open up the Arctic to oil drilling, in another act of defiance against his predecessor, Barack Obama. Back in April, Trump signed an executive order to extend offshore [...]

Adm. Zukunft: We Are Not Ready For Arctic Oil Spills

2017-07-19T13:48:45+00:00 July 19, 2017|

(Click to enlarge) The part of the icberg which lies underwater can be scouring the seafloor. (Credit: AWeith/Wikicommons) On Monday, U.S. Coast Guard Commandant Adm. Paul Zukunft warned that environmental response organizations are not prepared to address a large oil spill in the Arctic. (From The Marine Executive) --- He drew on his experience [...]

Scientists Harness Wind To Study Greenland Ice Sheet

2017-07-14T09:36:14+00:00 July 14, 2017|

Ross Edwards wasn’t sure what he’d gotten himself into when he arrived in Kangerlussuaq this past May to begin a month-long traverse of the Greenland ice sheet. His four teammates were busy assembling the strange vehicle they would use to cross the barren ice – a train of wooden sleds pulled by a giant kite. But Edwards, an earth scientist at Curtin University in Perth, Australia, worried that it wasn’t up to the task. “Man, this looks like a futon,” he thought.

As The Arctic Gets Warmer, Our Winters Get Colder

2017-07-11T14:16:15+00:00 July 11, 2017|

In the winter of 2015, New York City’s Hudson River froze—a rare occurrence. Prior to the 2000s, the record shows that the Hudson froze in 1720, 1780, and 1821—a period that overlaps with the so-called Little Ice Age, when the Northern Hemisphere was cooler overall. But since the turn of the century, the lower Hudson has frozen not once, but twice: in 2015 and 2003.

Scientists Just Proved That Wildfires Dumped A Huge Amount Of Soot Atop Greenland’s Ice Sheet

2017-06-27T09:21:36+00:00 June 27, 2017|

Scientists have for the first time tracked soot from Canadian wildfires all the way to the Greenland ice sheet, where they found that the dark, sunlight-absorbing particles landed on the ice and had the potential to significantly enhance its melting — pointing to a possible new driver of sea level rise. It’s the first end-to-end documentation of a process that, it’s feared, could hasten Greenland’s melting in the future — and since the ice sheet could contribute over 20 feet of eventual sea level rise, any such process is one that scientists weigh carefully.

Does “Balanced” Proposed Interior Budget Tip Scale Towards Oil And Gas?

2017-06-26T13:47:50+00:00 June 26, 2017|

Ocean territories surrounding the United States cover 3.4 million square nautical miles – more than the entire land area of all 50 states. The Department of the Interior (DOI) has the literally enormous responsibility of “support[ing] stewardship and collaborative conservation and management” of these ocean, Great Lakes, and coastal resources. DOI Secretary Ryan Zinke defended the president’s proposed budget for Fiscal Year (FY) 2018 at a series of hearings this week before the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee, the Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies, and the House Natural Resources Committee.

Member Highlight: Toxic Mercury Levels Are Actually Declining In Alaskan Polar Bears—But That’s Not As Great As It Sounds

2018-01-02T13:55:29+00:00 June 19, 2017|

Imagine: vast expanses of frozen sea, stretching from the northern coast of Alaska into the Arctic horizon. Welcome to the Southern Beaufort Sea—or at least, the Southern Beaufort Sea as it used to be. This icy Arctic ecosystem is dominated by the majestic polar bear, but warmer temperatures are changing both the landscape and its inhabitants. In a recent study in Polar Research, scientists at the University of Connecticut and the United States Geological Survey found that mercury levels measured in Southern Beaufort polar bears' hair have actually declined significantly in recent years, particularly in male polar bears. Surprisingly, despite worries about increasing pollution, mercury levels dropped by about 13 percent per year in samples collected from 2004 to 2011. The decrease was insignificant in female bears (4.4 percent), but much higher in male bears (15 percent). “We see this very substantial drop in polar bear mercury concentration over a relatively short period of time,” says Melissa McKinney, first author of the study and assistant professor at the University of Connecticut.

Faster-Moving Sea Ice Forces Polar Bears To Use More Energy

2017-06-15T12:49:07+00:00 June 15, 2017|

ANCHORAGE, Alaska (AP) — Rapid global warming has sped up the movement of sea ice off Alaska’s coasts, and already at-risk polar bears are paying a price, a new U.S. study says. Most sea ice moves throughout the year and the iconic white bears are on a perpetual walk to stay within their preferred habitat, said U.S. Geological Survey research ecologist George Durner, lead author of the study. He compares it to living on a treadmill that has picked up speed because ice is thinner, more brittle and moving faster because of wind and ocean currents.

“Mother Nature Doesn’t Belong To A Party”

2017-06-12T14:04:46+00:00 June 12, 2017|

While most people acknowledge climate change as a significant issue, many do not realize the looming threat it poses to our national security. For many military experts, it’s a risk as pressing as nuclear weapons or terrorism, dramatically altering “the very geostrategic landscape in which the U.S. military operates” (Military Expert Panel Center for Climate and Security Report: Sea Level Rise and the U.S. Military’s Mission). The Department of Defense (DOD) considers climate change a “threat multiplier,” amplifying instability by worsening stressors like food and water scarcity, poverty, and social tensions, which can drive political upheaval and threaten global stability, creating a security threat at home and abroad.

How The Arctic Ocean Became Saline

2017-06-09T10:00:33+00:00 June 9, 2017|

The Arctic Ocean was once a gigantic freshwater lake. Only after the land bridge between Greenland and Scotland had submerged far enough did vast quantities of salt water pour in from the Atlantic. With the help of a climate model, researchers from the Alfred Wegener Institute have demonstrated how this process took place, allowing us for the first time to understand more accurately how Atlantic circulation, as we know it today came about. The results of the study have now been published in the journal Nature Communications.

Hundreds of Huge Craters Discovered in the Arctic Ocean

2017-06-08T15:40:02+00:00 June 8, 2017|

When Karin Andreassen set out for the Barents Sea, she knew she would find a lot of methane. The cold, shallow body of water just north of where Norway meets Russia is home to oil and gas fields, and methane—the main component of natural gas—naturally seeps out of the seafloor here. Andreassen, a marine geologist at UiT The Arctic University of Norway, also knew from surveys in the 90s that she’d find some underwater craters. But she did not expect to find so many craters (hundreds!) and so many huge ones (half a mile wide).

U.S. Presence In The Arctic – Armed Icebreakers?

2017-05-22T12:35:47+00:00 May 22, 2017|

“U.S. presence in the Arctic is necessary for more than just power projection; it's a matter of national security,” Representative Dutch Ruppersberger (MD-2) proclaimed during a hearing of the House Appropriations Committee, Homeland Security Subcommittee. If only doing were as easy as saying – even accessing the remote region requires a heavy icebreaker that can ram through at least 20 feet of ice.

Breaking The Ice For Coast Guard Authorization

2017-04-10T13:38:46+00:00 April 10, 2017|

Unless you’re golfing, being down 40-1 is not a good way to end a game, but that’s currently the score in the Russia vs. U.S. Arctic turf war. Moscow stands as the military and exploration leader at the top of the world with their massive fleet of 40 icebreakers, compared to our single functioning heavy icebreaker (a second has been out of service since 2010, and the newest addition to the fleet is classified as a medium icebreaker).

Climate Change Indicator: Arctic Ocean Getting Warmer, Becoming More Like The Atlantic

2017-04-07T13:48:07+00:00 April 7, 2017|

A large international team of researchers has found another troubling indicator of climate change: the Arctic Ocean around the North Pole is getting warmer, and in the process, becoming more like the Atlantic Ocean to its south. Specifically, the eastern Eurasian Basin is now more ice-free and showing mixing of vertical layers of water, a phenomenon common in the Atlantic. Record-breaking loss of sea ice has become a common feature in the Arctic every summer the last 10 years or so. Since 2011, the eastern Eurasian Basin region has been nearly free of ice at the end of every summer.

Close Connection Between Deep Currents And Climate

2017-04-05T15:01:04+00:00 April 5, 2017|

Mild winters in northern Europe, rainfall in western Africa, hurricanes in North America - the energy transported around the world by the global ocean circulation affects the climate as well as regional weather phenomena. One of the key regions for the ocean circulation is the Labrador Sea between North America and Greenland. There warm, saline waters coming from the south near the sea surface cool down and sink to the depth. There the water masses flow back to the south along the continental margin. Thereby the area is one of the regions of crucial importance for the global ocean circulation.

U.S. Coast Guard’s Role In Maritime Security

2017-03-27T15:41:20+00:00 March 27, 2017|

The passenger cruise ship Crystal Serenity, with more than 1,700 passengers onboard, became the largest commercial cruise ship to navigate the Northwest Passage in August 2016. As a result of increasing maritime traffic and human activity in the Arctic, the U.S. Coast Guard is keeping a close eye on their ability to maneuver in the region.

Stressed Seabird Parents Think Only Of Themselves

2017-03-17T12:59:47+00:00 March 17, 2017|

Stress is a factor not only in the best human families; it also appears among animals. To see how bird family members interact with each other in stressful situations, researchers from Vetmeduni Vienna and the University of Gdansk, Poland, studied parent-offspring interactions in a long-lived seabird, the little auk (Alle alle).

NASA Study Improves Forecasts Of summer Arctic Sea Ice

2017-03-13T13:21:32+00:00 March 13, 2017|

The Arctic has been losing sea ice over the past several decades as Earth warms. However, each year, as the sea ice starts to melt in the spring following its maximum wintertime extent, scientists still struggle to estimate exactly how much ice they expect will disappear through the melt season. Now, a new NASA forecasting model based on satellite measurements is allowing researchers to make better estimates.

Polar Algae Survive More Than a Year in Space

2017-02-17T10:40:19+00:00 February 17, 2017|

For 530 days, two algal species withstood extreme temperatures and ultraviolet radiation that would quell most other life on Earth. Part of a long-term plant study conducted aboard the International Space Station (ISS), the algae were left to grow on a panel outside the ISS for more than a year-and-a-half. Preliminary analyses of the specimens, released February 1, suggest that the plants are doing just fine.

Engineers Help Arctic Ships Assess Ice Buildup

2017-02-17T10:29:51+00:00 February 17, 2017|

As global temperatures rise and arctic ice melts, more ships are taking advantage of expedient, yet dangerous ocean routes that are opening in the polar region. One of the main hazards of sailing in freezing temperatures is topside icing, in which water blown from the ocean freezes once it contacts a ship, potentially accumulating enough ice to put the vessel at risk of capsizing.

Natural Security Podcast: Episode 3

2017-03-06T11:54:57+00:00 February 2, 2017|

(Click to enlarge) Sailors man the rails aboard the aircraft carrier USS George Washington (Credit: Mass Communication Specialist Seaman Adam K. Thomas) In this third episode of the Natural Security Podcast, the Stimson Center’s Johan Bergenas sits down with Rear Admiral (ret.) Jon White. (From National Security Podcast, By Jon White) -- Admiral White [...]

High Levels of Black Carbon Discovered in Siberia, Which Could Speed Up Arctic Thaw

2017-02-01T12:45:17+00:00 February 1, 2017|

There is more soot in remote Siberia than at the edge of densely populated Europe, even though there are hardly any people there, the first in-depth study of black carbon in the region has found. In Tiksi, a small town in an isolated region of north-eastern Siberia, the levels of black carbon emitted by traffic is at higher levels than in Sweden, according to the two-year study published in the journal PNAS. Before this study, black carbon levels in this part of Russia were a blank spot on the map.

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